Metalworking fluids are engineered for a variety of lubrication and cooling operations. Since there are many combinations it is imperative to first select the correct fluid for the application. When cutting metal from the workpiece, one of the considerations in selecting a fluid is the cutting speed. Lower speeds demand a fluid that serves as a lubricant to prevent friction-induced wear, galling and chatter. Each of these can cause reduced tool life and scrap parts.
At high speed, the fluid needs to provide more cooling to prevent the tool and workpeice from becoming too hot and likely deforming the part and also reducing tool life. In addition, the right selection of machine coolants and lubricants help remove chips, improves the surface finish of the material being machined and reduces the possibility of corrosion.
Cutting at high speeds creates heat. That’s why we use coolants. Chips are formed in every metal cutting process. As temperature increases at the shear of the cut, plastic deformation of the metal occurs. Because of the increased plasticity of the metal when cutting at high speeds, the cutting force should be decreased to avoid deformation of the finished part.
Studies show that heat distribution follows three primary paths:
Machining performance issues can occur because of the wrong choice of fluid or oil. Sometimes the issue is a change in manufacturing process that alters the choice of the fluid being used. There are a number of factors to consider, including:
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