Oil based metalworking fluids are used in tough operations where lubrication and extreme pressure properties are required. With the correct formulations of additives, cutting oils provide significant improvements in cutting and grinding operations by reducing friction which results in better surface finishes and longer machine tool life. They are particularly ideal for use with grinding wheels and other abrasive tools. Though oil based cutting fluids do not replace water based fluids, where cooling properties are most important, they are instead used in applications where lubrication is more important than cooling.
Grinding and cutting oils are specially designed for optimum performance in many different operations. Some of their specific advantages include:
As we know, during metal cutting the tool comes into direct contact with the metal workpiece. When two rough metal surfaces come into close contact with each other their asperities will also be in close constant contact.
Mixed film lubrication is a combination of two different lubrication regimes: boundary and hydrodynamic. Hydrodynamic is when the lubricant provides a barrier, preventing the two surfaces from coming into close contact. Therefore, their asperities will not touch and there’s no need for extreme pressure additives. In mixed film lubrication, some asperities may still come into contact but not to the extent as boundary, as shown here.
To enhance results of the machining process, specialty additives are added to improve cutting performance, corrosion protection, and extend oil and tool-life.
Primary additives include:
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